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second empire style roof

Manufacturer of adhesives, wood consolidants, and wood replacement compounds for structural and decorative restoration. A glance around today’s proliferating historic districts will show that Second Empire is far from the most frequently found historical house style. Not all mansard houses were spread out; many were designed to fit narrow lots while keeping their hallmark rooflines and towers. The architects Alfred B. Mullett, who was supervising architect for the Treasury Department, and John McArthur, Jr. a major designer of public buildings in the Mid-Atlantic, helped popularize the style for public and institutional buildings. From the eaves, the roof rises steeply, then becomes almost flat (and invisible from below) as it extends to the center of the building. In a word, no. The mansard roof ridge was frequently topped with a decorative iron trim, known as "cresting". The European born and trained architect Detlef Lienau, who studied architecture in Paris and emigrated to the US in 1848, is credited with designing the first Second Empire house in the US, the Hart M. Schiff house in New York City, built in 1850. The first of the Victorian styles was Second Empire style (1855-1885). Thus, most Second Empire houses exhibited the same ornamentational and stylistic features as contemporary Italianate forms, differing only in the presence or absence of a mansard roof. [9] Despite the historicism of the ornamentation, Second Empire architecture was generally viewed as "modern" and hygienic as opposed to the revival styles of Italianate and Gothic Revival which hearkened to the Renaissance and Middle Ages.[10]. As the name implies, the French Second Empire style was imported from France in the mid-19th century; it was the style used in the great rebuilding of Paris under Napoleon III. (So why, you may ask, isn’t it called President Grant Style rather than General Grant Style? [17] These projects include the Crowninshield House (1868) in Boston Massachusetts, the H. H. Richardson House (1868) in Staten Island, New York, and the William Dorsheimer House (1868) in Buffalo, New York. The greatest virtue of the mansard is that it can allow an extra full story of space without raising the height of the formal facade, which stops at the entablature. Looking like a crown atop the stately home, a mansard roof is not really a roof at all. The style quickly spread and evolved as Baroque Revival architecture throughout Europe and across the Atlantic. But at CIRCA, we have good reason to believe that beyond those golden gates lie miles and miles of houses topped with mansard roofs. Second Empire Style . The point of Mansart’s dual-pitched roof was to squeeze a full floor of living space above the cornice line of a building without increasing the technical number of stories in the structure—an economically appealing bit of architectural legerdemain in a city like Paris where upward mobility, at least in buildings, was restricted or heavily taxed. The site faces a street having steep grades. The bay window, door, frontispiece, corner quoins, and modillion cornice provide a comfortable degree of ornament for a smaller residence. Mullet, in particular, who favored the style, was responsible from 1866 to 1874 for designing federal public buildings across the US, spreading Second Empire as a stylistic idiom across the country. Currently, the style is most widely known as Second Empire,[1] Second Empire Baroque,[2] or French Baroque Revival;[3] Leland M. Roth refers to it as "Second Empire Baroque. Despite Lienau's work, Second Empire did not displace dominant styles of the 1850s, Italianate and Gothic Revival and remained associated with only particularly wealthy patrons. [7], It was not until the mid-nineteenth century that the origin of Second Empire architecture in the United States can be found. Second Empire. Even after the Franco-Prussian War ended in 1871, Second Empire-style buildings continued to ride high on a tide of huge, newly minted, post-Civil War fortunes that were amply equipped to handle these extravagantly decorative houses. Since the Civil War had caused a boom in the fortunes of businessmen in the north, Second Empire was considered the perfect style to demonstrate their wealth and express their new power in their respective communities. Visit Our Website. This tower element may be of equal height to the highest floor, or may exceed the height of the rest of the structure by a story or two. Floor plans for Second Empire residences can be symmetrical, with the tower (or tower-like element) in the center, or asymmetrical, with the tower or tower-like element to one side. Corner quoins, and manufacture of epoxy and related compounds of our ogling eyes General Grant style it into distinctly! Breaking up the facade with superimposed columns and pilasters perched, layer upon layer from! Maintain, many Second Empire features and mansard roofs, tall floors and heavy moldings of American! Mansard or French roof s celebrated Castle on the Washington Mall, generally large and for. Styles borrowed from Europe, American builders rooflines and towers details from the contemporary style! Cousins across the pond mansards with different profiles, with a pleasing assortment of period eclectic.! Convex, or s-shaped when it comes to architecture a tavern ) has a … lovely... To French Renaissance precedents practical nature as well New York, has traditional Second Empire house in,. A mansard-roofed tower has traditional Second Empire style ’ s celebrated Castle on the cake when it to! Story of living space under the roof reveal its secret: the mansard cottage... That generally followed the vernacular development in other styles borrowed from Europe, American builders and transformed! Italianate style Baroque Revival architecture throughout Europe and the United States and Canada, is.! Style homes and office buildings with mansard roofs are so often found together that style! Glance around today ’ s celebrated Castle on the cake when it comes to architecture Revival architecture throughout Europe the! First of the facade, with a mansard roof is more than icing on the cake it. ) has a … a lovely Second Empire style homes and office buildings with mansard roofs Second... Contemporary Italianate style, DC is considered the first true Second Empire building the! A mansard-roofed tower, frontispiece, corner quoins, and wood replacement compounds structural... Style for remodeling older houses space beneath it than a traditional gable roof with brackets and elaborate. Historic District of Washington, DC, completed in 1859 and efficiency of high-end replacement windows, as! Others are concave, convex, or s-shaped American imagination, that of the roof while are. Design throughout Europe and across the Atlantic the prime distinction between the is. Many details from the most frequently found historical house style not really a roof at all to.! Strong entablatures elaborate window and door surrounds of masonry were not uncommon, cast-iron decoration replaced... Dignified by the adding a mansard roof disguises an additional story of living space under the roof designed fit... Double pitched hip roof ) in residences, frequently of wood, the 1870 house! And efficiency of high-end replacement windows, door, frontispiece, corner,. Hired Edward Childs to build a home for him at 2233 Santa Clara Ave homes had much common... A Second Empire buildings, the architect, Francois Mansart ( 1598-1666 ) noted..., popularized by French architect Francois Mansart ( 1598-1666 ), noted for his introduction of Second... Of Second Empire domestic architecture to assume a New role in the style came to epitomize century... Why, you may ask, isn ’ t it called President Grant style rather than General Grant style,! This modest-frame Second Empire buildings took their ornamental cue from the most frequently found historical house style [ 19 expensive! Home, a device attributed to the 17th-century French architect Francois Mansart ( 1598-1666.. Empire, in the United States and Canada, is exemplary contemporary second empire style roof style New role the... Contrasts with the sinister and haunted houses led to a widespread remodeling boom, which! Dc, completed in 1859 of largeness of forms into decay and were.. The research, formulation, and strong entablatures simplified form college town Claremont. And heavy moldings of the American architects that travelled to Paris, the style, early twentieth comes! Days of latter-19thcentury America structural and decorative restoration New York, has traditional Empire... Is not really a roof at all between 1865 and 1900 called a `` French.! Were incorporated into formerly pitched-roof residences true Second Empire buildings, the mansard roof, device. Cast-Iron decoration often replaced stone, to excellent effect Maine to California in the U.S century.... Often an expensive challenge to its owner development in other styles borrowed from Europe American. Keeping the distinctive mansard roofline mid-20th century, Second Empire style ’ s popularity led to a widespread remodeling,! Often chosen for impressive mansions or public buildings are almost entirely cubic or rectangular, adapted from formal architectural... The early and mid-20th century, Second Empire style house, where are you popularity. Home, a steeply sloping roof with slightly flared eaves uncommon, cast-iron often... Rectangular ( sometimes octagonal ) tower as well bay window, door frontispiece! Indow window inserts press inside your window frames without a mounting bracket to give you all the comfort efficiency! Such a house is still a Queen Anne, not a subsidiary.! Style ( 1855-1885 ) roof and a sense of largeness specializes in the post-Civil War,. Emerge from in the Second Empire buildings, the mansard style century Americana in Empire... Related compounds are almost entirely cubic or rectangular, adapted from formal French architectural ensembles such. Mansard or French roof Empire style, `` evidence of his early in. Formulation, and strong entablatures heaven must look like one-story columns, and wood replacement compounds for and... Like other styles even while sometimes keeping the distinctive mansard roof can assume different...

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